What is TBI?

TBI stands for Traumatic brain injury. A TBI is caused by a jolt, bump, or blow to the head that disrupts the brain’s natural function. Traumatic brain injury can have wide-ranging physical and psychological consequences. Some symptoms may develop immediately following the traumatic event, while others may develop days or weeks later.

Mild traumatic brain injury

The signs and symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury may include:

Physical symptoms
  • A state of being stunned, confused, disoriented or loss of balance
  • Loss of consciousness lasting for a few seconds up to a few minutes
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fatigue or drowsiness
  • Headache
  • Speech problems
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Sleeping more than normal
Sensory symptoms
  • Sensory problem
  • Blurred vision
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Bad taste in the mouth
  • Changes in the ability to smell
  • Sensitivity to light or sound
Cognitive or mental symptoms
  • Memory and concentration problems
  • Mood changes and mood swings
  • Depression and anxiety

Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries

Moderate to severe TBI’s will include any of the signs and symptoms of mild injury, and might also include the following symptoms. 

Physical symptoms
  • Loss of consciousness from several minutes to hours
  • Worsening headache that does not go away
  • Clear fluids coming out of nose or ears
  • Weakness or numbness in fingers and toes
  • Seizures
  • Dilated pupils 
  • Inability to awaken from sleep
  • Loss of coordination
Cognitive or mental symptoms
  • Profound confusion
  • Agitation, combativeness or other unusual behavior
  • Slurred speech and mumbling 
  • Coma

These symptoms may develop within a few hours up to a few days after the injury.

What causes a Traumatic Brain Injury?

TBI’s are caused by a blow or other injury to the head. The extent of damage can depend on several factors, including the type of injury and impact force. Common events causing TBI’s include the following:


Falls from a ladder, downstairs, in the bath, slip and falls, and other falls are the most common causes of TBI’s, particularly in older adults and young children.

Vehicle-related accidents

Collisions involving cars, motorcycles, bicycles, and pedestrians are all common causes of traumatic brain injury.


Domestic violence, child abuse, gunshot wounds, and other assaults are common causes. Shaken baby syndrome is a traumatic brain injury in infants caused by rough shaking of an infant.

Sports injuries

TBI’s may be caused by injuries from several contact sports, including soccer, boxing, football, baseball, lacrosse, skateboarding, hockey, and other high-impact sports.

Explosive blasts and other combat injuries

Explosive blasts are a frequent cause of TBI’s for active military members. Many researchers believe that the shock wave passing through the brain significantly disrupts brain function.

What Is the Cost of a Traumatic Brain Injury?

When considering the total cost of supporting an unanticipated injury, what kinds of expenses come to mind? Hospital charges? Medicine costs? Physical therapy payments?

Most people can come up with a lengthy list of the direct expenses they might have following an accident. What about the indirect costs that are sometimes overlooked? Lost income, for instance, is one of the highest indirect costs of a severe injury.

Minor injuries may keep you out of work for a few weeks; more severe injuries can force you to miss work for months or even years. When a person sustains a TBI, they may never return to work.

Northwestern stated that the average adult unemployment rate with a TBI two years after diagnosis is 60%. Expensive and continuous lifetime treatment expenses can range from $85,000 to $3 million. Sustaining a TBI can endanger the whole family’s financial security.

If you or a loved one has sustained a TBI in an accident,  Girardi | Keese can help you. We have recovered billions of dollars for our clients. Call 800-401-4530 to schedule a free consultation with us today.

Let’s explore why sustaining a TBI is so costly:

1. Recovery Is Ongoing

Every brain injury is different, but there are several generalizations that experts have noted about the recovery process for moderate to severe TBIs. For instance, many patients encounter most improvements in their condition within the initial six months.

Typically, the recovery rate slows before one year has passed, but most continue to improve for up to 24 months. Dramatic improvements are unlikely after two years of the date of injury. There is still a possibility to have small improvements several years after the incident. Since a continuous recovery period requires years of care, it is the main reason a TBI is so expensive.

2. Treatment Is Extensive

All the different treatments that a patient needs will also affect the total cost of the TBI. There are dozens of approaches to help the healing process or at least manage the TBI’s symptoms. According to the Mayo Clinic, conventional approaches include:

  • Medication;
  • Surgery;
  • Occupational therapy;
  • Physical therapy;
  • Speech therapy; and
  • Vocational counseling.

Call 800-401-4530  to schedule a free consultation with us today.

If you or a loved one has sustained a TBI in an accident,  Girardi | Keese can help you. We have recovered billions of dollars for our clients. Call 800-401-4530 to schedule a free consultation with us today.

If you or a loved one has sustained a TBI in an accident, you may be entitled to compensation. We have 55 years of experience and an extremely long list of successful cases. If you have been injured or have a legal matter you would like to discuss with an attorney from our firm, please contact us by filling out our form here or call 800-401-4530.